Definition of biomarkers and efficacy end-points
1.3. Companion Diagnostics
A validated (proven) test for each biomarker is needed.The test will accurately measure whether a biomarker is present and at what level. It may be a laboratory test or a test kit. The test may help to:
- Select patients who are likely to respond to a medicine.
- Exclude patients who are likely to have an adverse reaction.
- Determine the best dose for a patient.
‘Companion diagnostics’ are tests that are validated and approved for marketing in combination with a new medicine. They can be:
- Developed once a medicine is on the market.
- Developed alongside a medicine that is still under development.
Many companies that develop therapies for cancer have also begun to consider how a diagnostic test can benefit the treatment. The trend is to develop medicines and companion diagnostics together, rather than have both developments happen in isolation. Some examples: Sight: Companion diagnostics (CDx): definition, importance and role (sightdx.com) or Foundation Medicine: Companion Diagnostics Explained: Their Critical Role in Cancer Care and Our Latest Approvals | Foundation Medicine
1) EMA: The In-Vitro Diagnostic Devices Regulation (Available at: Regulation (EU) 2017/746) introduces a new classification system for companion diagnostics and the obligation to undergo a conformity assessment by a notified body.
2) Biomarker and Companion Diagnostics—A Review of Medicinal Products Approved by the European Medicines Agency. Available at: Frontiers | Biomarker and Companion Diagnostics—A Review of Medicinal Products Approved by the European Medicines Agency (frontiersin.org)
3) Questions & Answers-practical arrangements on the companion diagnostics consultation procedure to the European Medicines Agency by notified bodies. Available at: Questions & Answers - Practical arrangements on the companion diagnostics consultation procedure to the European Medicines Agency by notified bodies (europa.eu)