5. Trustworthiness



One of the significant challenges of any transformation, particularly in the health systems, is trust at different levels. Trust and trustworthiness can be made possible via training, informing, or privacy and security assurance. Training and educating the users can increase their knowledge about the value of digital technologies and the users’ trust in using them. The HCPs need to rely on the accuracy and reliability of digital technologies to use them in their daily practice. For example, medical doctors need to trust the accuracy of digital technologies and be able to make their clinical decisions relying on the data collected and analysed by digital technologies. Patients and caregivers need to trust in the sharing of health data and that their health data obtained through digital technologies and systems will be used for their good, their privacy right is respected, and that no one accesses their health information without their permission. Patients want to be assured that e-system interoperability protects their data and their health data is available without any changes across borders, whenever required [1] [2]. 

In 2022 the European Commission, in preparation of the European Health Data Space (as mentioned before), has issued the following statement: “Trust is a fundamental enabler for the success of the European Health Data Space which will provide a trustworthy setting for secure access to and processing of a wide range of health data. It builds further on the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), proposed Data Governance Act [3] draft Data Act [4] and Network and Information Systems Directive” [5].



[1] Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development: OECD Health Working Paper No. 129 Empowering the health workforce to make the most of the digital revolution, 2021. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/37ff0eaa-en.pdf?expires=1659692703&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=837633414E08CB8F3481B65238280DE4
[2] World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe. Future of digital health systems: report on the WHO symposium on the future of digital health systems in the European region: Copenhagen, Denmark, 6–8 February 2019. In: World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/329032 
[3] Proposal for a REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on European data governance (Data Governance Act) https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52020PC0767
[4] Proposal for a REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on harmonised rules on fair access to and use of data (Data Act) https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52022PC0068
[5] DIRECTIVE (EU) 2016/1148 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL-concerning measures for a high common level of security of network and information systems across the Union. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32016L1148&from=EN