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Pharmacoepidemiology is the study of the uses and effects of medicines in large numbers of people. It provides an estimate of the probability of beneficial effects of a medicine in a population and the probability of adverse effects. It involves continual monitoring of a population for unwanted effects and other safety concerns.


Pharmacogenetics is the study of individual genetic differences to understand how genes affect a person's response to medicines. Understanding how different genetics affect how a medicine is processed can help doctors to more accurately determine which medicine and which dose is best for each patient according to their response. Pharmacogenetics also helps doctors identify the medicine that best treats a disease and is least likely to cause side effects.


Pharmacogenomics is the study of entire genomes, across groups of individuals, to identify the genetic factors that influence responses to a medicine. Pharmacogenomics combines traditional pharmaceutical sciences, such as biochemistry, with an understanding of common DNA variations in the human genome.

Pharmacokinetic Study

A pharmacokinetic study is a study of how a medicine is handled by the body, usually measuring the concentration of the medicine in blood, urine, or tissues over time. Pharmacokinetic studies are used to characterise the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of a compound, either in blood or in other locations, and are often employed at the discovery or candidate-selection stages of a medicine development program.


Pharmacokinetics is the study of what the body does to medicine. It studies the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the medicine (ADME), as well as bioavailability.

These pharmacokinetic processes, often referred to as ADME, determine concentration of the medicine in the body, and the onset, duration, and intensity of a medicine's effect.


A pharmacologist investigates how medicines interact with biological systems, using in vitro (cells or animal tissues) or in vivo (live animals) research to predict what effect the medicine might have in humans. Pharmacologists aim to understand how medicines work and if they can be used effectively and safely in humans. They work closely with researchers to aid medicine discovery and development, and to determine questions of causation involving medications.


Pharmacology is the study of medicines, including their characteristics, interactions, and uses, and the biochemical or physiological effect they have on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism.


A pharmacopoeia is a collection of official standards for pharmaceutical substances and medicinal products. It includes directions for the quality control tests to be carried out on medicines and the raw materials used in production. It is a vital reference for individuals and organisations involved in research, development, manufacture, and quality control of medicines.

In most countries there is an official pharmacopoeia and all producers of medicines and/or substances for pharmaceutical use must comply with its quality/safety standards. In Europe, the European Pharmacopoeia provides the legal and scientific basis for quality control during development, production and marketing of medicines in European member states.


Pharmacotherapy is the treatment of diseases using conventional medicines (not biologic medicines).

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