Types of Trial Design

3. Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial Designs

Randomisation minimises the effect of differences among groups by equally distributing people with particular characteristics among all the trial arms. The researchers do not know which treatment is better. From what is known at the time, any one of the treatments chosen could be of benefit to the participant.

From trial inclusion criteria, equal allocation with regard to gender, age and health status is adopted wherever appropriate. It removes the potential of bias in the allocation of participants and tends to produce comparable groups, however it cannot eliminate accidental bias.

There are two main types of randomised trial designs:
  1. Parallel group
  2. Cross-over