3. Proteomics

3.1. The proteome

The proteome is the ‘end product’ of the genome. The genome hardly changes, but the proteome changes all the time in response to tens of thousands of signals from inside and outside the cell. For example, the proteome varies with:

  • Health or disease.
  • The nature of each tissue.
  • The stage of cell development.
  • Response to treatments.

The human body may contain more than 2 million different proteins, which each have different functions. Proteins serve vital functions in the body. They:

  • Regulate cell division.
  • Defend the body against disease - antibodies.
  • Speed up metabolic reactions - enzymes.
  • Transmit signals between brain cells - neurotransmitters.

As such, the proteome is often defined as the entire protein content in a given cell, tissue or organism at a certain point in time