Overview of techniques involved (e.g. 'omics')

2. Genomics

The common definition of a genome is a person’s entire set of DNA (which contains their genes).
  • Most of the genome is in the nucleus or core of each cell. The nucleus acts as the control centre for the cell. It contains the genetic material and controls cell growth and reproduction.
  • A small amount of the genome is in the mitochondria. These are small structures in the cell that are responsible for energy production.

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) definition of a genomic biomarker includes RNA as well as DNA:

 “A measurable DNA and/or RNA characteristic that is an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, and/or response to therapeutic or other interventions”

In other words, a genomic biomarker is a feature of DNA and/or RNA that can be measured to indicate a normal or disease process in the body. This might include an individual’s response to a medicine or other interventions.