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Herd immunity

Herd immunity is a form of immunity that occurs when the vaccination of a significant portion of a population (or herd) provides a measure of protection for individuals who have not or cannot develop immunity.


The human Ether-a-go-go Related Gene is a gene that codes for a protein that contributes to the electrical activity of the heart that plays a role in the coordination of the heart™s beating.


Clinical diversity (or heterogeneity) is the variability between the patients or the interventions being studied, or between the outcomes that the studies measure. When comparing different studies, it is important to bear in mind that there are several types of heterogeneity.

Methodological diversity (or heterogeneity) refers to variation in study design, and in the risk of bias between studies.

Clinical and/or methodological diversity can lead to differences in the way statistics are applied to different studies (statistical heterogeneity).

Progress in medical science is improving our understanding of heterogeneity among patients with the same disease. The differences in patient responses to treatment, and the risk of adverse reactions, are being explored at the molecular level. This is leading to the development of targeted treatments for different subgroups of patients.

High Performance Liquid Chromatography

High Performance Liquid Chromatography

High-Throughput Screening

High-Throughput Screening


HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It weakens the immune system by destroying important cells (T-cells or CD4 cells) that fight disease and infection. The immune system then can't protect the body from infections and disease. Ultimately, HIV can lead to AIDS, the final stage of HIV infection. In AIDS, the immune system fails.

Human Ether-a-go-go Related Gene

Human Ether-a-go-go Related Gene


A hypothesis is an assumption, or set of assumptions, made on the basis of limited evidence that either:

a) asserts something as a starting point for further investigation or

b) confirms something as highly probable in light of established facts.

For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, it is required that one can test it. A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research.

For the purposes of medicines development, the interest is in the hypothesis that asserts something “ for example that a new treatment for a disease is better than the existing standard of care treatment.

Hypothesis testing

Hypothesis testing is the use of statistics to determine the probability that a hypothesis is true. It comprises four steps:
1. Formulate the null hypothesis.
2. Choose the appropriate statistical tests.
3. Perform the test.
4. Accept or reject the null hypothesis.

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